PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES / Referoidut artikkelit

The Finnish supra-long pine chronology: a wider publication list here / Lapin pitkä lustokalenteri: laajempi julkaisuluettelo täällä.

Dendrochronological papers / Lustotutkimusraportteja:


Düthorn, E., Lindén, J., Timonen, M., Gläser, S. & Esper, J. 2014. Heterogeneity in the (climate) signal strength of Pinus sylvestris tree-ring chronologies in southern Finland (in review).

Düthorn, E., Schneider, L., Konter, O., Schön, P., Timonen, M. & Esper, J. 2014. On the hidden significance of differing micro-sites in dendroclimatology (manuscript).


Düthorn, E., Holzkämper, S., Timonen, M. & Esper, J. 2013. Influence of micro-site conditions on tree-ring climate signals and trends in southern and northern Sweden. Trees (2013) 27:1395–1404 DOI 10.1007/s00468-013-0887-8. Abstract / Pdf


Esper, J., Schneider, L., Krusic, P. J., Luterbacher, J., Büntgen, U., Timonen, M, Sirocko, F. & Zorita, E. 2013. European summer temperature response to annually dated volcanic eruptions over the past nine centuries. Bulletin of Volcanology, ISSN 0258-8900, 07/2013, Volume 75, Issue 7, pp. 1 - 14. Abstract / Pdf

Helama, S., Arentoft, B. W.,Collin-Haubensak, O., Hyslop, M. D., Brandstrup, C.K., Mäkelä, H.M., Tian, Q.H., Wilson, R. 2013. Dendroclimatic signals deduced from riparian versus upland forest interior pines in North Karelia, Finland. Ecological Research DOI: 10.1007/s11284-013-1084-3. Abstract / Pdf

Helama, S., Holopainen, J., Macias-Fauria, M., Timonen, M. & Mielikäinen, K. 2013. A chronology of climatic downturns through the mid- and late- Holocene: tracing the distant effects of explosive eruptions from palaeoclimatic and historical evidence in northern Europe. Polar Research 2013, 32, 1586. Abstract / Pdf

Helama, S., Jiang, J., Korhonen, J., Holopainen, J. & Timonen, M. 2013. Quantifying temporal changes in Tornionjoki river ice breakup dates and spring temperatures in Lapland since 1802. Journal of Geographical Sciences 23: 1069-1079. Abstract / Pdf

Helama, S., Mielikäinen, K., Timonen, M., Herva, H., Tuomenvirta, H. & Venäläinen, A. 2013. Regional climatic signals in Scots pine growth with insights into snow and soil associations. Dendrobiology 2013, vol. 70, 27–34 Abstract / Pdf

Kasatkina, E. A., Shumilov, O. I., Timonen, M & Kanatjeva, A. G. 2013. Consequences of Powerful Volcanic Eruptions according to Dendrochronological Data. ISSN 0001-4338, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2013, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 432–438. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013. Original Russian Text © E.A. Kasatkina, O.I. Shumilov, M. Timonen, A.G. Kanatjev, 2013, published in Izvestiya AN. Fizika Atmosfery i Okeana, 2013, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 469–476. Pdf

Matskovsky, V.V. and Helama, S.2013. Testing long-term summer temperature reconstruction based on maximum density chronologies obtained by reanalysis of tree-ring datasets from northernmost Sweden and Finland Clim. Past Discuss., 9, 5659–5700, 2013.doi:10.5194/cpd-9-5659-2013. Pdf

Schneider L., Esper J., Timonen M. & Büntgen U. 2013. Detection and evaluation of an early divergence problem in Northern Fennoscandian tree-ring data. Oikos 000: 001–008, 2013 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2013.00836.x. Abstract / Pdf

Timonen, M., Jiang, J., Helama, S. & Mielikäinen, K. 2013. Significant changes of subseries-means in the Finnish tree-ring index of 7638 years, with comparisons to glaciological evidence from Greenland and Alps. Quaternary International. Polar Research 2013, 32, 1586. Abstract / Pdf


Esper, J., Büntgen, U., Timonen, M. & Frank, D.C. 2012. Variability and extremes of northern Scandinavian summer temperatures over the past two millennia. Global and Planetary Change 88–89 (2012) 1–9. Abstract / Pdf

Esper, J., Frank, D.C., Timonen, M., Zorita, E., Wilson, R.J.S., Luterbacher, J., Holzkämper, S., Fischer, N., Wagner, S., Nievergelt, D., Verstege, A., & Büntgen, U. 2012. Orbital forcing of tree-ring data. Nature Climate Change, doi: 10-1038/NCLIMATE1589. Abstract / Pdf
Check also: Climate in northern Europe reconstructed for the past 2,000 years: Cooling trend calculated precisely for the first time. Press Release of Johannes Gutenberg University.

Läänelaid, A., Helama, S., Kulla, A., Timonen, M. & Jaagusa, J. 2012. Common growth signal and spatial synchrony of the chronologies of tree-rings from pines in the Baltic Sea region over the last nine centuries. Abstract / Pdf

Sutinen, R., Närhi, P., Middleton, M., Hänninen, P., Timonen, M. & Sutinen, M.-L. 2012. Advance of Norway spruce (Picea abies) onto mafic Lommoltunturi fell in Finnish Lapland during the last 200 years. Boreas. 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2011.00238.x. ISSN 0300-9483. Abstract / Pdf

Timonen, M., Mielikäinen, K. & Helama, S. 2012. Timberline tree-ring statistics examined through chronology stripping. Forestry Studies|Metsanduslikud Uurimused 56, 5–15, 2012. DOI: 10.2478/v10132-012-0001-9 Pdf


Büntgen, U., Raible. CC., Frank, D., Helama, S., Cunningham, L., Hofer, D., Nievergelt, D., Verstege, A., Timonen, M., Stenseth, N. C. & Esper, J. 2011. Causes and Consequences of Past and Projected Scandinavian Summer Temperatures, 500–2100 AD. PLoS ONE 6(9), doi: 10.1371/ Abstract / Pdf

Raspopov, O. M., Dergachev, V. A., Ogurtsov, M. G., Kolström, T., Jungner, H., Dmitriev, B. P. 2011. Variations in climate parameters at time intervals from hundreds to tens of millions of years in the past and its relation to solar activity. Pdf

Shumilov, O. I., Kasatkina, E. A., Mielikäinen, K. J., Timonen, M. I. & Kanatjev, A. G. 2011. Palaeovolcanos, solar activity, and pine tree-rings from the Kola Peninsula (northwestern Russia) over the last 560 years. International Journal of Environmental Research. V5. 5, Issue 3, 2011.  Abstract / Pdf

Sutinen, R., Närhi, P., Middleton, M., Kuoppamaa, M., Juntunen, V., Hyvönen, E., Hänninen, P., Teirilä, A., Pänttäjä, M., Neuvonen, S., Äikää, O., Piekkari, M., Timonen, M. & Sutinen, M.-L. 2011. Geological controls on subarctic conifer distribution. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 49, 315–325. Pdf


Helama S., Macias Fauria M., Mielikäinen K., Timonen M. & Eronen M. 2010. Sub-Milankovitch Solar Forcing of Past Climates: Mid and Late Holocene Perspectives.Geological Society of America Bulletin. Abstract / Pdf

Macias-Fauria, M., Grinsted A., Helama,S., Moore, J., Timonen, M., Martma T., Isaksson E.  & Eronen, M. 2010. Unprecedented low twentieth century winter sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas since A.D. 1200. Climate Dynamics Volume 34, Number 6, 781-795, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-009-0610-z. Abstract / Pdf


Helama, S., Makarenko, N. G., Karimova L. M., Kruglun, O. A., Timonen, M., Holopainen, J., Meriläinen, J. & Eronen, M. 2009. Dendroclimatic transfer functions revisited: Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period summer temperatures reconstructed using artificial neural networks and linear algorithms Ann. Geophys., 27, 1097–1111, 2009. Abstract / Pdf

Helama, S., Meriläinen, J. & Tuomenvirta, H. 2009. Multicentennial megadrought in northern Europe coincided with a global El Niño–Southern Oscillation drought pattern during the Medieval Climate Anomaly DOI 10.1130/G25329A. Abstract / Pdf

Helama, S., Timonen, M., Holopainen, J., Ogurtsov, M. G., Mielikäinen, K., Eronen, M., Lindholm, M. & Meriläinen, J. 2009. Summer temperature variations in Lapland during the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age relative to natural instability of thermohaline circulation on multi-decadal and multi-centennial scales. J. Quaternary Sci., Vol. 24 pp. 450–456. ISSN 0267-8179. Abstract / Pdf


Helama, S., Mielikäinen, K., Timonen, M.& Eronen, M. 2008. Finnish supra-long tree-ring chronology extended to 5634 BC. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography,62:4,271 — 277. Abstract / Pdf

Helama, S., Salminen, H., Timonen, M & Varmola, M. 2008. Dendroclimatological analysis of seeded and thinned Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands at the coniferous timberline. New Forests (2008) 35:267–284 DOI 10.1007/s11056-007-9076-1. Abstract / Pdf

Macias Fauria, M., Helle, T., Niva, A., Posio, H. & Timonen, M. 2008. Removal of the lichen mat by reindeer enhances tree growth in a northern Scots pine forest. Abstract / Pdf


Raspopov, O. M., Dergachev, V. A., Kuzmin, A. V., Kozyreva, O. V., Ogurtsov, M. G., Kolström, T, & Lopatin, E. 2007. Regional tropospheric responses to long-term solar activity variations. Advances in Space Research 40 (2007) 1167–1172. 0273-1177/$30, 2007 COSPAR. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.01.081 Abstract / Pdf

Raspopov,O. M., Dergachev, Kolström, T, Kuzmin, V. A., Lopatin, E.V & Lisitsyna, O. V. 2007. Long-term solar activity variations as a stimulator of abrupt climate change. RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, VOL. 9, ES3002, doi:10.2205/2007ES000250, 2007 Abstract / Pdf

Salzer, M.W. & Hughes, M. K. 2007. Bristlecone pine tree rings and volcanic eruptions over the last 5000 yr. Quaternary Research 67 (2007) 57–68. Abstract / Pdf

Sutinen, R., Aro, I., Herva, H., Muurinen, T., Piekkari, M. & Timonen, M. 2007. Macrofossil evidence dispute ubiquitous birch-pine-spruce succession in Western Finnish Lapland. Applied Quaternary research in the central part of glaciated terrain,edited by Peter Johansson and Pertti Sarala. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 46, X–XX, 2007. Abstract / Pdf


Holopainen, J. 2006. Reconstructions of past climates from documentary and natural sources in Finland since the 18th century. Academic Dissertation. University of Helsinki. Pdf

Holopainen, J., Helama, S. & Timonen, M. 2006. Plant phenological data and tree-rings as palaeoclimate indicators since AD 1750 in SW Finland. International Journal of Biometeorology 51: 61-72. Abstract / Pdf

Karimova, L., Kuandykova, Y., Makarenko, N., Novak, M. M. & Helama, S. 2006. Fractal and topological dynamics for the analysis of paleoclimatic records. Physica A 373 (2007) 737–746. Abstract / Pdf

Kultti, S., Mikkola, K., Virtanen, T., Timonen, M. & Eronen, M. 2006. Past changes in the Scots pine forest line and climate in Finnish Lapland: a study based on megafossils, lake sediments, and GIS-based vegetation and climate data. The Holocene 16(3): 381-391. Abstract / Pdf


Helama, S., Lindholm M., Meriläinen J., Timonen M. & Eronen M. 2005. Multicentennial ring-width chronologies of Scots pine along north-south gradient across Finland. Tree-Ring Research, Volume 61(1):21-32. Abstract / Pdf

Helama, S., Lindholm, M., Timonen, M. & Eronen, M. 2005. Mid- and late Holocene tree population density changes in northern Fennoscandia derived by a new method using megafossil pines and their tree-ring series. Journal of Quaternary Science (2005) 20(6):567–575. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI: 10.1002/jqs.929. Abstract / Pdf

Helama, S., Timonen, M., Lindholm, M., Meriläinen, J. & Eronen, M. 2005. Extracting long-period climate fluctuations from tree-ring chronologies over timescales of centuries to millennia. International Journal of Climatology 25 (13): 1767-1779. Abstract / Pdf

Ogurtsov, M., Helama, S., Eronen, M. & Lindholm, M. 2005. Centennial-to-millennial fluctuations in July temperatures in North Finland as recorded by timberline tree rings of Scots pine. Quaternary Research 63 (2005) 182– 188. Abstract / Pdf


Helama, S., Lindholm M., Timonen M. & Eronen M. 2004. Dendrochronologically dated changes in the limit of pine in northernmost Finland during the past 7.5 millennia. Boreas 33 (3): 250-259. Abstract / Pdf

Holopainen J., Timonen M., Ogurtsov M. G., Lindholm M., Meriläinen J. & Eronen M. 2004. Comparison of living-tree and subfossil ring-widths with summer temperatures from 18th,19th and 20th centuries in northern Finland. Dendrochronologia 21 (3): 147-154. Abstract / Pdf

Helama, S., Lindholm M., Timonen M. & Eronen M. 2004. Detection of climate signal in dendrochronological data analysis: a comparison of tree-ring standardization methods. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 79 (3-4): 239-254. Abstract / Pdf

Macias, M.,Timonen, M., Kirchhefer, A., Lindholm, M., Eronen, M. & Gutierrez, E. 2004. Growth variability of Scots pine along a West-East Gradient across Northern Fennoscandia: A Dendroclimatic Approach. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 36:565-574. Abstract / Pdf

Raspopov, O. M., Dergachev, V. A. & Kolström, T. 2004. Hale cyclicity of solar activity and its relation to climate variability. Solar Physics (2004) 224: 455–463. Springer 2005. Abstract / Pdf

Varmola, M., Hyppönen, M., Mäkitalo, K., Mikkola, K. & Timonen, M. 2004. Forest management and regeneration success in protection forests near the timberline in Finnish Lapland. Forest Research 19(5): 424-441. Abstract / Pdf

Varmola, M., Salminen H. & Timonen, M. 2004. Thinning response and growth trends of seeded Scots pine stands at the arctic timberline. Silva Fennica 38(1):71-83. Pdf. Tutkimusseloste. Pdf


Hyppönen, M., Varmola, M.,Juntunen, V., Lohi, T., Mikkola, K., Mäkitalo, K. & Timonen, M. 2003. Metsien uudistuminen suojametsäalueella. Metsätieteen aikakauskirja 1/2003: 31-45. Pdf

Ogurtsov, M.G., Jungner, H., Kocharov, G.E., Lindholm, M., Eronen, M. & Nagovitsyn, Yu. 2003. On the link between northern Fennoscandial climate and length of the quasi- eleven-year cycle in galactic cosmic ray flux. Solar Physics 218 (1-2): 345-357. Abstract / Pdf


Eronen, M., Lindholm, M., Helama; S., Meriläinen, J. & Timonen, M. 2002. Summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the millennial tree-ring archive of Fennoscandian forest-limit Scots Pine. Pdf

Eronen, M., Zetterberg, P., Briffa, K., Lindholm, M., Meriläinen, J. & Timonen M. 2002. Part 1: The supra-long Scots pine tree-ring record for northern Finnish Lapland; Chronology construction and initial inferences. The Holocene 12(6): 673-680. Abstract / Pdf

Helama, S., Lindholm, M., Timonen, M., Eronen, M. & Meriläinen, J. 2002. Part 2: Interannual-to-centennial variability in summer temperatures in northern Fennoscandia during the last 7500 years extracted from tree-rings of Scots pine. The Holocene 12(6): 681-687. Abstract / Pdf

Ogurtsov, M.G., Kocharov, G.E., Lindholm, M., Meriläinen, J. & Eronen, M. 2002. Evidence of solar variation in the tree-ring based climate reconstruction of northern Fennoscandia. Solar Physics 205 (2): 403-417). Abstract / Pdf


Helle, T., Kojola, I & Timonen, M.2001. Lumipeitteen vaikutus Käsivarren porolukuihin: mikä on Pohjois-Atlantin säänvaihtelun (NAO) merkitys? Suomen Riista 47:75-85. Pdf

Lindholm, M., Eggertsson, O., Lovelius, N., Raspopov, O., Shumilov, O. & Läänelaid, A. 2001. Growth indices of North European Scots pine record the seasonal North Atlantic Oscillation. Boreal Environment Research 6: 275-284. Pdf

Ogurtsov, M.G. Kocharov, G.E., Lindholm, M., Eronen, M. & Nagovitsyn, Yu., A. 2001. Solar activity and regional climate in northern Fennoscandia. Radiocarbon.43, 144-156. Pdf


Lindholm, M.,Eronen, M. & Timonen, M. 2000. Growth variability during the last 7500 years interpreted from the supra-long ring-width chronology of Scots pine from northern Fennoscandia. University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry. Research Notes 108: 53-63.

Lindholm, M.,Lehtonen, H., Kolström, T., Meriläinen, J., Eronen, M. & Timonen,M. 2000. Climatic signals extracted from ring-width chronologies of Scots pines from the northern, middle and southern parts of the boreal forest belt in Finland. Silva Fennica 34(4): 317-330. Pdf


Eronen, M., Hyvärinen, H. & Zetterberg P. 1999. Holocene humidity changes in northern Finnish Lapland inferred from lake sediments and submerged Scots pines dated by tree-rings

Lindholm, M., Eronen, M., Timonen, M. & Meriläinen, J. 1999. A ring-width chronology of Scots pine from northern Lapland covering the last two millennia. Annales Botanici Fennici 36: 119. Pdf


Lindholm, M., Meriläinen, J. , Timonen, M., Vanninen, P. & Eronen, M. 1997. Effects of climate on the growth of Scots pine in the Saimaa lake district, south-eastern Finland, in the southern part of the boreal forest belt. Dendrochronologia 15: 151-168. Pdf


Lindholm, M. 1996. Reconstruction of past climate from ring-width chronologies of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the northern forest limit in Fennoscandia. Ph.D. thesis. University of Joensuu, Publications in Sciences 40: 1-169.

Lindholm, M., Timonen, M. & Meriläinen, J. 1996. Extracting mid-summer temperatures from ring-width chronologies of living pines at the northern forest limit in Fennoscandia. Dendrochronologia Pdf

Mielikäinen, K., Timonen, M. & Nöjd, P. 1996. Männyn ja kuusen kasvun vaihtelu Suomessa 1964-1993.Folia Forestalia – Metsätieteen aikakauskirja 1996(4):309-320. Pdf.

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