PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES / Referoidut artikkelit

The Finnish supra-long pine chronology: a wider publication list here / Lapin pitkä lustokalenteri: laajempi julkaisuluettelo täällä.

Dendrochronological papers / Lustotutkimusraportteja:


Helama S, Saranpää P, Pearson CL, Arppe L, Holopainen J, Mäkinen H, Mielikäinen K, Nöjd P, Sutinen R, Taavitsainen J-P, Timonen M, Uusitalo J &Timonen M. 2019. Frost rings in 1627 BC and AD 536 in subfossil pinewood from Finnish Lapland. Quaternary Science ReviewsVolume 204, 15 January 2019, Pages 208-215. Pdf

Kasatkina EA, Shumilov OI & Timonen M. 2019. Solar activity imprints in tree ring-data from northwestern Russia. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. Volume 193, 15 October 2019, 105075. Abstract / Pdf


Helama S, Arppe L, Timonen M, Mielikäinen K & Oinonen M. 2018. A 7.5 ka chronology of stable carbon isotopes from tree rings with implications for their use in palaeo-cloud reconstruction. Global and Planetary Change. Volume 170, November 2018, Pages 20-33. Abstract / Pdf

Helama S, Arppe L, Uusitalo J, Holopainen J, Mäkelä HM, Mäkinen H, Mielikäinen K, Nöjd P, Sutinen R, Taavitsainen J-P, Timonen M & Oinonen M. 2018. Volcanic dust veils from sixth century tree-ring isotopes linked to reduced irradiance, primary production and human health. Nature Scientific Reports 8. Pdf / Article

Kasatkina E, Shumilov OI, Timonen M & Kanatjev AG. 2018. Impact of powerful volcanic eruptions and solar activity on the climate above the Arctic Circle.  Geofísica Internacional (2018) 57-1: 69-79. Pdf


Brienen RJW, Gloor E, Clerici S, Newton R, Arppe L, Boom A, Bottrell S, Callaghan M, Heaton T, Helama S, Helle G, Leng MJ, Mielikäinen K, Oinonen M & Timonen M. 2017. Tree height strongly affects estimates of water-use efficiency responses to climate and CO2 using isotopes. Nat Commun 2017 Aug 18;8(1):288. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00225-z. Abstract / Pdf

Franke, AK, Bräuning, A, Timonen M & Rautio P. 2017. Growth response of Scots pines in polar-alpine tree-line to a warming climate. Forest Ecology and Management 399:94-107. Abstract / Pdf

Suvanto S, Henttonen HM, Nöjd P, Helama S, Repo T, Timonen M & Mäkinen H. 2017. Connecting potential frost damage events identified from meteorological records to radial growth variation in Norway spruce and Scots pine. Trees : Structure and Function. Abstract / Pdf


Esper J, Krusic PJ, Ljungqvist FC, Luterbacher J, Carrer M, Cook E, Davi NK, Hartl-Meier C, Kirdyanov A, Konter O, Myglan V, Timonen M, Treydte K, Trouet V, Villalba R, Yang B, Büntgen U. 2016. Review of tree-ring based temperature reconstructions of the past millennium. Volume 145, 134–151. Abstract / Pdf

Konter O, Büntgen U, Carrer M, Timonen M & Esper J. 2016. Climate signal age effects in boreal tree-rings: Lessons to be learned for paleoclimatic reconstructions. Quaternary Science Reviews 142 (2016) 164–172.


Cook ER, Seager R, Kushnir Y, Briffa KR, Büntgen U, Frank D, Krusic PJ, Tegel W, van der Schrier G, Andreu-Hayles L, Baillie M, Baittinger C, Bleicher N, Bonde N, Brown D, Carrer M, Cooper R, Cufar K, Dittmar C, Esper J, Griggs C, Gunnarson B, Günther B, Gutierrez E, Haneca K, Helama S, Herzig F, Heussner K-U, Hofmann J, Janda P, Kontic R, Köse N, Kyncl T, Levanic T, Linderholm H, Manning S, Melvin T.M, Miles D, Neuwirth B, Nicolussi K, Nola P, Panayotov M, Popa I, Rothe A, Seftigen K, Seim A, Svarva H, Svoboda M, Thun T, Timonen M, Touchan M, Trotsiuk V, Trouet V, Walder F, Wazny T, Wilson R, Zang C. 2015. Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era. Science Advances 2015, 1.doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1500561. pp. 1 - 9.

Helama S, Arppe L, Timonen M, Mielikäinen K & Oinonen M. 2015. Age-related trends in subfossil tree-ring δ13C data. Pdf. Chemical Geology. Volume 416, 27 November 2015, Pages 28–35.

Düthorn E, Schneider L, Konter O, Schön P, Timonen M & Esper J. 2015. On the hidden significance of differing micro-sites on tree-ring based climate reconstructions. Pdf

Jiang J, Gu X, Timonen M, Helama S & Mielikäinen K. 2014. Significant Change-Points of Subperiod Levels in Tree-Ring Chronologies As Indications of Climate Changes (pp. 109-146). Book info / Article. In: Daniels J.A. (ed.), Advances in Environmental Research. Volume 37. Nova Science Publishers. ISBN: 978-1-63463-602-5.


Düthorn E, Lindén J, Timonen M, Gläser S & Esper J. 2014. Heterogeneous climate signal in Pinus sylvestris tree-ring chronologies from southern Finland. In: Filippo A et al. (Eds.). Tree rings in archaeology, climatology and ecology. TRACE 12, 60-67. Pdf

Esper J, Düthorn E, Krusic P, Timonen M & Büntgen U. 2014. Northern European summer temperature variations over the Common Era from integrated tree-ring density records. Journal of Quaternary Science. Volume 29, Issue 5, pages 487–494, July 2014. Doi: 10.1002/jqs.2726. Abstract / Pdf

Helama S, Holopainen J, Timonen M. & Mielikäinen, K. 2014. An 854-year tree-ring chronology of scots pine for South-West Finland. Studia Quaternaria vol. 31, no. 1 (2014): 61–68. DOI: 10.2478/squa-2014-0006. Pdf


Düthorn E., Holzkämper S, Timonen M & Esper J. 2013. Influence of micro-site conditions on tree-ring climate signals and trends in southern and northern Sweden. Trees (2013) 27:1395–1404 DOI 10.1007/s00468-013-0887-8. Abstract / Pdf

Esper J, Schneider L, Krusic PJ, Luterbacher J, Büntgen U, Timonen M, Sirocko F & Zorita E. 2013. European summer temperature response to annually dated volcanic eruptions over the past nine centuries. Bulletin of Volcanology, ISSN 0258-8900, 07/2013, Volume 75, Issue 7, pp. 1 - 14. Abstract / Pdf

Helama S, Holopainen J, Macias-Fauria M, Timonen M & Mielikäinen K. 2013. A chronology of climatic downturns through the mid- and late- Holocene: tracing the distant effects of explosive eruptions from palaeoclimatic and historical evidence in northern Europe. Polar Research 2013, 32, 1586. Abstract / Pdf

Helama S, Jiang J, Korhonen J, Holopainen J & Timonen M. 2013. Quantifying temporal changes in Tornionjoki river ice breakup dates and spring temperatures in Lapland since 1802. Journal of Geographical Sciences 23: 1069-1079. Abstract / Pdf

Helama S, Mielikäinen K, Timonen M, Herva H, Tuomenvirta H & Venäläinen A. 2013. Regional climatic signals in Scots pine growth with insights into snow and soil associations. Dendrobiology 2013, vol. 70, 27–34 Abstract / Pdf

Kasatkina EA, Shumilov OI, Timonen M & Kanatjeva AG. 2013. Consequences of Powerful Volcanic Eruptions according to Dendrochronological Data. ISSN 0001-4338, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2013, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 432–438. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2013. Original Russian Text © EA Kasatkina, OI Shumilov, M Timonen, AG Kanatjev, 2013, published in Izvestiya AN. Fizika Atmosfery i Okeana, 2013, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 469–476. Pdf

Schneider L, Esper J, Timonen M & Büntgen U. 2013. Detection and evaluation of an early divergence problem in Northern Fennoscandian tree-ring data. Oikos 000: 001–008, 2013 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2013.00836.x. Abstract / Pdf

Timonen M, Jiang J, Helama S & Mielikäinen K. 2013. Significant changes of subseries-means in the Finnish tree-ring index of 7638 years, with comparisons to glaciological evidence from Greenland and Alps. Quaternary International. Polar Research 2013, 32, 1586. Abstract / Pdf


Esper J, Büntgen U, Timonen M & Frank DC. 2012. Variability and extremes of northern Scandinavian summer temperatures over the past two millennia. Global and Planetary Change 88–89 (2012) 1–9. Abstract / Pdf

Esper J, Frank DC, Timonen M, Zorita E, Wilson RJS, Luterbacher J, Holzkämper S, Fischer N, Wagner S, Nievergelt D, Verstege A, & Büntgen U. 2012. Orbital forcing of tree-ring data. Nature Climate Change, doi: 10-1038/NCLIMATE1589. Abstract / Pdf
Check also: Climate in northern Europe reconstructed for the past 2,000 years: Cooling trend calculated precisely for the first time. Press Release of Johannes Gutenberg University.

Läänelaid A, Helama S, Kull A, Timonen M & Jaagusa J. 2012. Common growth signal and spatial synchrony of the chronologies of tree-rings from pines in the Baltic Sea region over the last nine centuries. Abstract / Pdf

Sutinen R, Närhi P, Middleton M, Hänninen P, Timonen M & Sutinen M.-L. 2012. Advance of Norway spruce (Picea abies) onto mafic Lommoltunturi fell in Finnish Lapland during the last 200 years. Boreas. 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2011.00238.x. ISSN 0300-9483. Abstract / Pdf

Timonen M, Mielikäinen K & Helama S. 2012. Timberline tree-ring statistics examined through chronology stripping. Forestry Studies|Metsanduslikud Uurimused 56, 5–15, 2012. DOI: 10.2478/v10132-012-0001-9. Pdf


Büntgen U, Raible CC, Frank D, Helama S, Cunningham L, Hofer D, Nievergelt D, Verstege A, Timonen M, Stenseth NC & Esper J. 2011. Causes and Consequences of Past and Projected Scandinavian Summer Temperatures, 500–2100 AD. PLoS ONE 6(9), doi: 10.1371/ Abstract / Pdf

Shumilov OI, Kasatkina EA, Mielikäinen KJ, Timonen MI & Kanatjev, AG. 2011. Palaeovolcanos, solar activity, and pine tree-rings from the Kola Peninsula (northwestern Russia) over the last 560 years. International Journal of Environmental Research. V5. 5, Issue 3, 2011.  Abstract / Pdf

Sutinen R, Närhi P, Middleton M, Kuoppamaa M, Juntunen V, Hyvönen E, Hänninen P, Teirilä A, Pänttäjä M, Neuvonen S, Äikää O, Piekkari M, Timonen M & Sutinen M-L. 2011. Geological controls on subarctic conifer distribution. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 49, 315–325. Pdf


Helama S, Macias Fauria M, Mielikäinen K, Timonen M & Eronen M¨. 2010. Sub-Milankovitch Solar Forcing of Past Climates: Mid and Late Holocene Perspectives.Geological Society of America Bulletin. Abstract / Pdf

Macias-Fauria M, Grinsted A, Helama S, Moore J, Timonen M, Martma T, Isaksson E  & Eronen M. 2010. Unprecedented low twentieth century winter sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas since A.D. 1200. Climate Dynamics Volume 34, Number 6, 781-795, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-009-0610-z. Abstract / Pdf


Helama S, Makarenko NG, Karimova LM, Kruglun OA, Timonen M, Holopainen J, Meriläinen J & Eronen M. 2009. Dendroclimatic transfer functions revisited: Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period summer temperatures reconstructed using artificial neural networks and linear algorithms Ann. Geophys., 27, 1097–1111, 2009. Abstract / Pdf

Helama S, Timonen M, Holopainen J, Ogurtsov MG, Mielikäinen K, Eronen M, Lindholm M & Meriläinen J. 2009. Summer temperature variations in Lapland during the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age relative to natural instability of thermohaline circulation on multi-decadal and multi-centennial scales. J. Quaternary Sci., Vol. 24 pp. 450–456. ISSN 0267-8179. Abstract / Pdf


Helama S, Mielikäinen K, Timonen M & Eronen M. 2008. Finnish supra-long tree-ring chronology extended to 5634 BC. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift - Norwegian Journal of Geography,62:4,271 — 277. Abstract / Pdf

Helama S, Salminen H, Timonen M & Varmola M. 2008. Dendroclimatological analysis of seeded and thinned Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands at the coniferous timberline. New Forests (2008) 35:267–284 DOI 10.1007/s11056-007-9076-1. Abstract / Pdf

Macias Fauria M, Helle T, Niva A, Posio H & Timonen M. 2008. Removal of the lichen mat by reindeer enhances tree growth in a northern Scots pine forest. Abstract / Pdf


Salzer MW & Hughes MK. 2007. Bristlecone pine tree rings and volcanic eruptions over the last 5000 yr. Quaternary Research 67 (2007) 57–68. Abstract / Pdf

Sutinen R, Aro I, Herva H, Muurinen T, Piekkari M & Timonen M. 2007. Macrofossil evidence dispute ubiquitous birch-pine-spruce succession in Western Finnish Lapland. Applied Quaternary research in the central part of glaciated terrain,edited by Peter Johansson and Pertti Sarala. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 46, X–XX, 2007. Abstract / Pdf


Holopainen J, Helama S & Timonen M. 2006. Plant phenological data and tree-rings as palaeoclimate indicators since AD 1750 in SW Finland. International Journal of Biometeorology 51: 61-72. Abstract / Pdf

Kultti S, Mikkola K, Virtanen T, Timonen M & Eronen M. 2006. Past changes in the Scots pine forest line and climate in Finnish Lapland: a study based on megafossils, lake sediments, and GIS-based vegetation and climate data. The Holocene 16(3): 381-391. Abstract / Pdf


Helama S, Lindholm M, Meriläinen J, Timonen M & Eronen M 2005. Multicentennial ring-width chronologies of Scots pine along north-south gradient across Finland. Tree-Ring Research, Volume 61(1):21-32. Abstract / Pdf

Helama S, Lindholm M, Timonen M & Eronen M. 2005. Mid- and late Holocene tree population density changes in northern Fennoscandia derived by a new method using megafossil pines and their tree-ring series. Journal of Quaternary Science (2005) 20(6):567–575. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI: 10.1002/jqs.929. Abstract / Pdf

Helama S, Timonen M, Lindholm M, Meriläinen J & Eronen M. 2005. Extracting long-period climate fluctuations from tree-ring chronologies over timescales of centuries to millennia. International Journal of Climatology 25 (13): 1767-1779. Abstract / Pdf


Helama S, Lindholm M, Timonen M & Eronen M. 2004. Dendrochronologically dated changes in the limit of pine in northernmost Finland during the past 7.5 millennia. Boreas 33 (3): 250-259. Abstract / Pdf

Holopainen J, Timonen M, Ogurtsov MG, Lindholm M, Meriläinen J & Eronen M. 2004. Comparison of living-tree and subfossil ring-widths with summer temperatures from 18th,19th and 20th centuries in northern Finland. Dendrochronologia 21 (3): 147-154. Abstract / Pdf

Helama S, Lindholm M, Timonen M & Eronen M. 2004. Detection of climate signal in dendrochronological data analysis: a comparison of tree-ring standardization methods. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 79 (3-4): 239-254. Abstract / Pdf

Macias M, Timonen M, Kirchhefer A, Lindholm M, Eronen M & Gutierrez E. 2004. Growth variability of Scots pine along a West-East Gradient across Northern Fennoscandia: A Dendroclimatic Approach. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 36:565-574. Abstract / Pdf

Varmola M, Hyppönen M, Mäkitalo K, Mikkola K & Timonen M. 2004. Forest management and regeneration success in protection forests near the timberline in Finnish Lapland. Forest Research 19(5): 424-441. Abstract / Pdf

Varmola M, Salminen H & Timonen M. 2004. Thinning response and growth trends of seeded Scots pine stands at the arctic timberline. Silva Fennica 38(1):71-83. Pdf. Tutkimusseloste. Pdf


Hyppönen M, Varmola M, Juntunen V, Lohi T, Mikkola K, Mäkitalo K & Timonen M. 2003. Metsien uudistuminen suojametsäalueella. Metsätieteen aikakauskirja 1/2003: 31-45. Pdf


Eronen M, Lindholm M, Helama S, Meriläinen J & Timonen M. 2002. Summary of the strengths and weaknesses of the millennial tree-ring archive of Fennoscandian forest-limit Scots Pine. Pdf

Eronen M, Zetterberg P, Briffa K, Lindholm M, Meriläinen J & Timonen M. 2002. Part 1: The supra-long Scots pine tree-ring record for northern Finnish Lapland; Chronology construction and initial inferences. The Holocene 12(6): 673-680. Abstract / Pdf

Helama S, Lindholm M, Timonen M, Eronen M & Meriläinen J. 2002. Part 2: Interannual-to-centennial variability in summer temperatures in northern Fennoscandia during the last 7500 years extracted from tree-rings of Scots pine. The Holocene 12(6): 681-687. Abstract / Pdf


Helle T, Kojola I & Timonen M. 2001. Lumipeitteen vaikutus Käsivarren porolukuihin: mikä on Pohjois-Atlantin säänvaihtelun (NAO) merkitys? Suomen Riista 47:75-85. Pdf


Lindholm M, Eronen M & Timonen M. 2000. Growth variability during the last 7500 years interpreted from the supra-long ring-width chronology of Scots pine from northern Fennoscandia. University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry. Research Notes 108: 53-63.

Lindholm M, Lehtonen H, Kolström T, Meriläinen J, Eronen M & Timonen M. 2000. Climatic signals extracted from ring-width chronologies of Scots pines from the northern, middle and southern parts of the boreal forest belt in Finland. Silva Fennica 34(4): 317-330. Pdf


Lindholm M, Eronen M, Timonen M & Meriläinen J. 1999. A ring-width chronology of Scots pine from northern Lapland covering the last two millennia. Annales Botanici Fennici 36: 119. Pdf


Lindholm M, Meriläinen J, Timonen M, Vanninen P & Eronen M. 1997. Effects of climate on the growth of Scots pine in the Saimaa lake district, south-eastern Finland, in the southern part of the boreal forest belt. Dendrochronologia 15: 151-168. Pdf


Lindholm M, Timonen M & Meriläinen J. 1996. Extracting mid-summer temperatures from ring-width chronologies of living pines at the northern forest limit in Fennoscandia. Dendrochronologia Pdf

Mielikäinen K, Timonen M & Nöjd P.  1996. Männyn ja kuusen kasvun vaihtelu Suomessa 1964-1993.Folia Forestalia – Metsätieteen aikakauskirja 1996(4):309-320. Pdf.

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